An iteration symbol and a property for influence arrows are included, to allow a loop to be executed multiple times within one time step. Such looping may be required, for example, when the value of a variable cannot be calculated directly from others, but is found by trying many successive values to minimise some error function.

The basic elements of an iterative loop are as follows.

The iteration symbol contains the condition that marks the successful convergence of the iteration. An influence arrow coming **from** the alarm symbol can be used as an argument to the function iterations( ). This function returns the number of iterations made so far. This function can be used to set the initial value (also called the guess) for the loop, i.e. when the number of iterations so far is equal to zero. If the number of iterations so far is one or more, then the result of the last calculation should be used. Since the last calculation depends on the result calculated from the guess, a circular loop of influences is present. Normally, Simile would reject this loop at build time, but the definition of the iterations() function makes it explicit that the influence from the alarm symbol refers to its value on the previous iteration, and therefore cannot be part of a circularity.

You do not have to use the iterations( ) function; if the results of previous iterations are irrelevant, as for instance in a generate-and-test algorithm, you may not need to have any influences from the alarm symbol at all. Alternatively, if each result does depend on previous ones but the actual number of iterations is irrelevant, you can use the boolean value of the alarm symbol directly to choose between starting a new iterative approximation (true) and refining the result of the previous iteration (false). In this case you would get a circularity, but setting a property of the influence arrow: "Use values made in same time step" to true, allows the loop to be processed. You also need to set this property on influences that convey the result of the last iteration step for use at the start of the following step. Influence arrows with this property set are drawn with a dashed line, and the equation that uses their value gets the one from the previous iteration rather than the current one. To set this property for an influence arrow, double-click on it to invoke the property dialogue box.

It is unlikely that any of the above description is comprehensible without an example. The included example model for Ball-Berry stomatal conductance poses a problem for conventional System Dynamics modelling tools because it depends upon the solution of the following pair of simultaneous equations.

Gs = g_{0} + g_{1} * A * H / C_{a}

A = Gs * A_{Q}

Apart from the external parameters, g_{0}, g_{1}, H, C_{a} and A_{Q}, the equation for Gs depends only on A, and the equation for A depends only on Gs. In this implementation, the loop is opened, by introducing a place-holder for Gs, called Gs_0. This variable is calculated from A. A is calculated using Gs. A guess is made for the initial value of Gs. Subsequently, Gs is set to the last calculated value of Gs_0. The influence arrow from Gs_0 to Gs is dashed, indicating that the value from the previous iteration is to be used. The alarm symbol terminates the iterative loop when Gs and Gs_0 differ by less than one part in one thousand.

That's all there is to it, except that it's worth noting what to do if the iteration does not converge. It is necessary to use the new "Abort Execution" command in the "Model" menu of the model diagram window (i.e. NOT in the run control window).

In: Contents >> Working with submodels

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